Núm. 131 (2024)
Morfología

Caracterización morfológica de los nectarios extraflorales en especies vegetales de la Amazonia brasileña

Patrícia Nakayama Miranda
Instituto Federal do Acre - Campus Rio Branco, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil
José Eduardo Lahoz da Silva Ribeiro
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Armando Aguirre-Jaimes
Instituto de Ecología AC
Izaias Brasil
Universidade Federal do Acre
Wesley Dáttilo
Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red de Ecoetología

Publicado 2024-02-06

Palabras clave

  • caracterización morfológica,
  • especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs,
  • selva amazónica brasileña.
  • Brazilian Amazon rainforest,
  • EFN-bearing plant species,
  • morphological characterization

Resumen

Antecedentes y Objetivos: Los nectarios extraflorales (NEFs) son glándulas secretoras de una solución acuosa compuesta principalmente de azúcares, aminoácidos y lípidos, frecuentemente utilizada como recurso alimenticio por hormigas, que tienden a proteger sus plantas hospederas contra insectos herbívoros. Aunque la selva amazónica es reconocida mundialmente por su alta diversidad de plantas, pocos estudios se han realizado en la región que caracterizan las diferentes formas de NEFs. En este contexto, nuestro principal objetivo fue realizar una descripción morfológica de los NEFs en una selva amazónica brasileña.

Métodos: Establecimos una parcela de 6250 m2 en diez fragmentos de bosque situados en el estado de Acre, Amazonía Brasileña. En estas parcelas, realizamos recorridos de campo intensivos para localizar especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs. Posteriormente, utilizamos imágenes de microscopía electrónica de barrido para caracterizar morfológicamente los NEFs. Las descripciones morfológicas incluyeron información sobre la forma de vida de las especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs, morfotipos de NEFs y su ubicación en las diferentes estructuras de la planta.

Resultados clave: Caracterizamos morfológicamente 67 especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs, distribuidas en 28 géneros y 19 familias. Las familias botánicas con mayor representatividad taxonómica fueron Fabaceae, Bignoniaceae y Malpighiaceae. Las lianas fueron la forma de vida que presentó más especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs, mientras que los NEFs de tipo elevado fueron los más frecuentes.

Conclusiones: La mayor frecuencia de NEFs de tipo elevado evidencia la importancia del sistema de defensa de hormigas contra la herbivoria en esta selva amazónica brasileña, ya que se ha documentado en otros trabajos que este morfotipo secreta un mayor volumen de néctar, lo que es una ventaja en relación con el potencial de atracción. Finalmente, nuestros hallazgos indican la existencia de una alta diversidad de especies de plantas portadoras de NEFs en esta región de Amazonía Brasileña, y una importante diversidad morfológica de nectarios extraflorales asociados.

Métricas

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Citas

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