Núm. 129 (2022)
Artículo de investigación

Sequía experimental en plántulas en un claro y en el sotobosque de un bosque de niebla, Veracruz, México

Avril Manrique-Ascencio
Instituto de Ecología, A.C. (INECOL), Red de Ecología Funcional
Guadalupe Williams-Linera
Instituto de Ecología, A.C. (INECOL), Red de Ecología Funcional
Ernesto I. Badano
Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, A.C. (IPICYT), División de Ciencias Ambientales

Publicado 2022-09-22

Palabras clave

  • climate change,
  • functional traits,
  • pioneer tree,
  • shade-tolerant trees,
  • specific leaf area,
  • survival
  • ...Más
  • árbol pionero,
  • árboles tolerantes a la sombra,
  • área foliar específica,
  • cambio climático,
  • rasgos funcionales,
  • supervivencia.
  • ...Más


Antecedentes y Objetivos: Se espera que las sequías inducidas por el cambio climático afecten al bosque de niebla. Como los rasgos funcionales son indicadores útiles del desempeño de especies vegetales, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto del ambiente lumínico y la sequía sobre área foliar (AF), área foliar específica (AFE), contenido de clorofila, grosor, dureza foliar, supervivencia y tasas de crecimiento relativo (TCR) de plántulas en sotobosque y claro.

Métodos: En un bosque de niebla en Veracruz, México, se usaron exclusiones de lluvia para simular sequía en sotobosque y claro. Se midieron AF, AFE, contenido de clorofila, grosor, dureza, supervivencia y TCR en Eugenia capuli (especie de sotobosque tolerante a la sombra), Liquidambar styraciflua (especie del dosel de tolerancia intermedia) y Trema micranthum (árbol pionero colonizador de claros) en sotobosque-control y -sequía, y claro-control y -sequía.

Resultados clave: El AF aumentó con sequía en E. capuli en claro y decreció para L. styraciflua en ambos ambientes lumínicos. El contenido de clorofila fue similar entre tratamientos de agua para E. capuli y L. styraciflua en sotobosque. El grosor y dureza foliares difirieron con sequía para E. capuli y L. styraciflua en claro. Los rasgos foliares de T. micranthum cambiaron solo en sotobosque. Eugenia capuli presentó la mayor y similar supervivencia entre tratamientos. Liquidambar styraciflua mostró una mayor supervivencia en claro-sequía, y T. micranthum en claro. Eugenia capuli tuvo la mayor TCR en sotobosque, mientras que T. micranthum en claro.

Conclusiones: Los rasgos funcionales de plántulas de E. capuli y L. styraciflua respondieron a sequía moderada más en claro que en sotobosque. Los resultados sugieren que los rasgos funcionales de las especies intermedia y tolerante a la sombra tienden a cambiar menos bajo una sequía moderada, que los del árbol pionero si se mantiene el ambiente lumínico forestal.


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