Núm. 127 (2020)
Artículo de investigación

Lluvia de semillas y establecimiento en comunidades sucesionales en Chiapas, México

Fernando Carrillo Arreola
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Pedro Francisco Quintana-Ascencio
Department of Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida, USA
Biografía
Neptalí Ramírez-Marcial Ramírez-Marcial
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Departamento de Conservación de la Biodiversidad
Mario González-Espinosa
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur

Publicado 2020-05-21

Palabras clave

  • forest landscapes,
  • habitat heterogeneity,
  • human disturbance,
  • Lacandon Maya,
  • swidden agriculture,
  • tropical rainforest
  • ...Más
    Menos
  • agricultura trashumante,
  • heterogeneidad del hábitat,
  • mayas lacandones,
  • paisajes forestales,
  • perturbación humana,
  • selva alta perennifolia
  • ...Más
    Menos

Resumen

Antecedentes y Objetivos: La agricultura en los trópicos reduce, fragmenta y altera los bosques y los paisajes forestales. Evaluamos la riqueza de especies y la dominancia de formas de vida en la lluvia de semillas, y la abundancia y supervivencia anual de nuevos reclutas en bosques maduros, medianamente maduros, bosques tempranos, potreros y campos de cultivo en ambientes naturales y humanizados. Pronosticamos diferencias en composición y número de semillas y de reclutas en función de los diferentes hábitats y de las matrices de vegetación que los circundan.
Métodos: Durante un año se colectaron muestras de semillas y plantas en Lacanjá-Chansayab y Bonampak-Bethel, ambas dentro de la zona de amortiguamiento de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules, Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México. Para la lluvia de semillas, instalamos 14 trampas en sitios que representan el gradiente de sucesión en la vegetación local (2 sitios × 6 hábitats × 14 trampas; n = 168). Independientemente, para evaluar los cambios en reclutamiento y supervivencia tempranas se establecieron 15 cuadros (0.5 × 2.0 m) en cada comunidad arbolada (2 sitios × 3 comunidades × 15 cuadros; n = 90).
Resultados clave: Colectamos ~13,600 semillas de 144 especies pertenecientes a 48 familias botánicas. Los bosques maduros presentaron la mayor riqueza (60-61) y los potreros la menor (14-11). Observamos una reducción en la riqueza de especies y un cambio en la dominancia de las formas de vida a través del gradiente sucesional. Los bosques incluyeron principalmente semillas de árboles, mientras los potreros estuvieron dominados por unas pocas especies de gramíneas. La lluvia de semillas en las áreas agrícolas se caracterizó por un reducido número de especies generalistas. Para los reclutas de especies leñosas, se registraron ~3416 individuos (<0.5 m de altura) de 238 morfoespecies, de las cuales 129 fueron identificadas a nivel de especie en 42 familias. El mayor número de reclutas ocurrió en bosques maduros comparados con bosques tempranos y su supervivencia fue mayor en los bosques maduros.
Conclusiones: Documentamos la progresiva simplificación y homogenización en la composición florística y el efecto generalizado de los humanos en las regiones tropicales.

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